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Hima Bindu Vejella

Entity Framework 4.0 - Learn to Create Databases from the Model

14 July 2011

For application developers focusing on the needs of their code, rather than worrying about the complexities of data representation, the Entity Framework’s abstractions are essential. But eventually a database needs to be created, and Hima is here to show us how it’s done.

The ADO.NET Entity Framework (EF) is object relational mapping software for ADO.NET, used to develop applications that interact with data. It provides a mapping between the relational database schemas and objects. This technology is helpful for architecting, designing and developing at a conceptual level without worrying about details. ADO.NET Entity Framework allows developers to program against the Entity Relationship (Object) model, as opposed to querying against the relational database, mainly concentrating on the data. The main benefit is to make data oriented applications maintenance friendly.

EF - Benefits

  • The application won’t be tied to hard-coded dependencies on the storage schema or database.
  • The conceptual model and the storage-specific schema mappings can change without changing the application code.
  • Developers can work more easily with an object model that can be mapped to various storage schemas, and can be implemented in different databases.
  • The ability to map multiple conceptual models to a single storage schema.

Model First Development was introduced in VS 2010, along with .NET Framework 4.0, and the essential idea behind the Entity Framework is to query the model, rather than the database. In this article I will walk through how to generate databases from the model.

Understanding the model

EF maps to the database tables using a model. This model is responsible for mapping the application’s entities and their relationships to the data held in the physical database. It’s a combination of three layers, and is stored as an Entity Data Model (.edmx) file. .edmxis an XML based file that consists of these 3 layers.

  1. Storage Layer: this is defined with Store Schema Definition Language (SSDL). Table structures and their relationships are defined here.
  2. Conceptual Layer: this is defined with Conceptual Schema Definition Language (CSDL). Business entities and their relationships are described in the conceptual schema.
  3. Mapping Layer. This is defined with Mapping Specification Language (MSL). It maps the conceptual schema to the storage schema. The mapping schema describes how the business entities map to the database schema, and how database tables map to the entities in the model.

If you right click on an .edmx file and open it with XML Text Editor, you can view the EDMX schema layers.

At runtime, the .edmx is split into three different files: .ssdl, .csdl and .msl.

To construct any database, we need define the tables for the data storage. Here, tables are mapped to entities, hence the need to have entities and their relationships defined in the model. The model can be created using an .edmx file in Entity Framework and each entity in a specific Entity Framework is mapped as a table inside the database, and each property in an entity is mapped to a corresponding column in the specified table.

Creating the model

Let us start by creating a Class Library Application in Visual Studio 2010, so that we can re-use the models. We select the Add ->new Item , then the Data tab in the Visual Studio 2010 Installed Templates list, and finally select ADO.NET Entity Data Model. We’ll name our .edmx ‘Company’, and click the Add button, in the lower right corner, as shown below.

Adding a new item

Figure 1: Adding a new item to the class library project.

Adding Company.edmx to the project

Figure 2: Adding Company.edmx to the project.

The moment we click the Add button, the Entity Data Model Wizard appears. This gives us two options to select from:

  1. Generate from database
  2. Empty model

Adding an empty model

Figure 3: Adding an empty model.

We aren’t going to worry about the first option as we are interested in creating a database from the model only. We’ll select the second option, Empty model, and click the Finish button. As you can see from the screenshot above, this option creates an empty model as a starting point for visually designing a conceptual model from the toolbox. When the project is compiled, classes will be generated from the model. We’ll specify a database connection to map the conceptual model to the storage model later.

If you observe the Solution Explorer, it creates a new reference related to Entity Framework, System.Data.Entity, responsible for working with the Entity Framework related APIs. This reference is added only after adding an .edmx file.

The System Data Entity

Figure 4: The System.Data.Entity reference, added after an .edmx file is created.

Creating entities in the .edmx

Now we need to define the model in this .edmx file by creating entities, which can be done by dragging items from the EF toolbox or from the model itself.

Entity Framework Toolbar

Figure 5: Entity Framework toolbar for creating entities and relationships between entities.

In a Company, we’ll have Employees, Departments and Managers as entities. Let’s create the Employee entity.

We right click on the .edmx file and Click Add → Entity as shown below.

Adding a new entity

Figure 6: Adding a new entity to the Model.

A dialogue box for adding an Entity appears, as shown below.

Entity dialog box

Figure 7: Creating the Employee entity.

We’ll name the entity ‘Employee’. The Entity Set is automatically pluralized by the IDE, based on the Entity Name.

It also creates a Key property - ID - of type Integer. This Key is called the Entity Key in the model, and mapped as the Primary Key in the database. If you do not want to create the Entity Key property for a particular entity you can uncheck this property. Next, we’ll press OK.

Now we have created an entity, we can start adding some more properties for it. There are two ways of doing this:

  1. Right click on the entity to add new properties such as EmpName, Description, DOB and Address.

    Creating scalar properties

    Figure 8: Creating scalar properties for the entities.

  2. 2. Select the Id property and hit enter to add some more scalar properties (scalar properties map to a single field in the storage layer).

Editing entity properties

To edit the attributes for entity properties, you select the property and right click it, then navigate to properties. The properties that you set are reflected in the database that is going to be created from the model.

Selecting the Employee entity’s properties

Figure 9: Selecting the Employee entity’s properties.

Editing the Employee entity’s properties

Figure 10: Editing the Employee entity’s properties.

Note that here the identity property for the primary key column is set automatically by the IDE. The Nullable attribute allows or disallows any null values inside the column.

Creating more entities for the model

Now let us create a department entity with the properties Id, DeptName, DeptDescription, and DeptCode, as shown to the left.

Fig11: The Department entity.

The manager entity

Let us also create a Manager entity with ManagerId, EmployeeID as properties. The key for this entity is the combination of ManagerId and EmployeeID. One employee can report to multiple managers.

Figure 12: The Manager entity.

Applying relationships to the entities

An employee cannot be member of multiple departments. A department, however, should accommodate multiple employees, so the relationship between employee and department is one to many. Let us add a new association between these two tables. For this, we right click on the model, and click Add → Association…

Adding an association relationship

Figure 13: Adding an Association relationship to the table.

This opens the following window, with the option to add relationships between these two tables.

Adding an association between emplyee and department

Figure 14: Adding an association between Employee and Department.

We need to make provision for the department entity to have many instances of the Employee entity, so we map the relationship between the department and the Employee entities as one to many, as shown above. Clicking the check box “Add foreign key properties to the ‘Employee’ entity” helps to create the foreign key relationships between these two tables automatically.

If we observe the Employee entity, we notice that departmentid is being added to the employees table for the foreign key relationship in the database.

A manager can have more than one employee reporting to him, and an employee can report to multiple managers, so the relationship between the Employee entity and the manager entity is many to many. We need to add a many to many association between these two entities. Because a manager is also an employee of the company, the manager class gets inherited from the Employee class. To add this inheritance relationship, right click on the model and select Add →Inheritance…

Adding an inheritance

Figure 15: Adding an inheritance relationship for entities.

In the dialog box, select Employee as the base entity as and Manager as the derived entity.

Defining the inheritance

Figure 16: Adding inheritance between the Employee and Manager entities.

The final model

Figure 17: The final model after applying all the relationships.

We’ve now finished adding relationships between our entities, and are ready to generate our database.

Changing DatabaseSchema Name

Entity Framework Model uses dbo as the default schema name. In order to change that, right click on the .edmx in the VS2010 IDE, and click on Properties. The ConceptualEntityModel properties window appears as shown below. Make sure that you change the name according to the project, so that the script files are generated accordingly.

Conceptual Model Properties

Figure 18: Conceptual Model Properties.

If we look at Company.edmx in the automatic editor selector, we can view the XML schema code that’s been generated from the design. SSDL, CSDL, and MSL are created by the IDE, based on the entities and their relationships. Each time we make changes to the model, this schema gets recreated. To view this, we need to right click on the .edmx file and open with the XML (Text) Editor.

Opening the .edmx with the XML editor

Figure 19: Opening the .edmx with the XML editor.

Here we can examine how the Entities and their relations are mapped in the conceptual model, and how the storage schema and conceptual schema are actually mapped in the mapping layer.

We can also examine the Company.designer.cs file, a partial class inherited from ObjectContext.

All the entities that are created from the IDE inherit from Entityobject. Their code is generated automatically with properties and datacontract attributes. Whenever we modify and save the .edmx file, the classes or the automatic code are regenerated by the IDE.

Generating the database from the model

Now we need to right click and select Generate Database from the Model, from the context menu.

Generate Database from the Model

Figure 20: Generate Database from the Model

We need to have an empty or existing database created in SQL Server to generate a database from the model. I have created an empty database, called Company, in SQL Server 2008. If you do not have existing connections, then click on new Connection button and specify your credentials, as shown below.

Connection string credentials

Figure 21: Connection string credentials.

Now, choose the appropriate data connection from the dropdown list, as shown below. Here we also have the option to save the connection string in app.config, which contains connection string metadata and various settings for the project. The syntax is somewhat different from the normal connection string.

Choosing the data connection for the creation of a database from our model

Figure 22: Choosing the data connection for the creation of a database from our model.

Pressing Next generates a file called Company.edmx.sql. Note that the constraints, foreign key relationships, and primary keys in the tables are created based on the properties specified in the model.

The generated Company.edmx.sql file

Figure 23: The generated Company.edmx.sql file

Finally, click on the Finish button. The IDE creates this .sql script file for us:

-- --------------------------------------------------

-- Entity Designer DDL Script for SQL Server 2005, 2008, and Azure

-- --------------------------------------------------

-- Date Created: 04/25/2011 17:30:49

-- Generated from EDMX file: D:\Training\AJAX\ModelDatabase\ModelDatabase\Company.edmx

-- --------------------------------------------------




USE [Company];





-- --------------------------------------------------

-- Dropping existing FOREIGN KEY constraints

-- --------------------------------------------------



-- --------------------------------------------------

-- Dropping existing tables

-- --------------------------------------------------



-- --------------------------------------------------

-- Creating all tables

-- --------------------------------------------------


-- Creating table 'Employees'

CREATE TABLE [Hima].[Employees] (

    [Id] int IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,

    [EmpName] nchar(4000)  NOT NULL,

    [EmpDescription] nvarchar(max)  NOT NULL,

    [DOB] datetime  NOT NULL,

    [Address] nvarchar(max)  NOT NULL,

    [DepartmentId] int  NOT NULL




-- Creating table 'Departments'

CREATE TABLE [Hima].[Departments] (

    [Id] int IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,

    [DeptName] nvarchar(max)  NOT NULL,

    [DeptDescription] nvarchar(max)  NOT NULL,

    [DeptCode] nchar(4000)  NOT NULL




-- Creating table 'Employees_Manager'

CREATE TABLE [Hima].[Employees_Manager] (

    [ManagerId] int  NOT NULL,

    [EmployeeID] int  NOT NULL,

    [Id] int  NOT NULL




-- Creating table 'EmployeeManager'

CREATE TABLE [Hima].[EmployeeManager] (

    [Employees_Id] int  NOT NULL,

    [Managers_Id] int  NOT NULL




-- --------------------------------------------------

-- Creating all PRIMARY KEY constraints

-- --------------------------------------------------


-- Creating primary key on [Id] in table 'Employees'

ALTER TABLE [Hima].[Employees]





-- Creating primary key on [Id] in table 'Departments'

ALTER TABLE [Hima].[Departments]





-- Creating primary key on [Id] in table 'Employees_Manager'

ALTER TABLE [Hima].[Employees_Manager]

ADD CONSTRAINT [PK_Employees_Manager]




-- Creating primary key on [Employees_Id], [Managers_Id] in table 'EmployeeManager'

ALTER TABLE [Hima].[EmployeeManager]

ADD CONSTRAINT [PK_EmployeeManager]

    PRIMARY KEY NONCLUSTERED ([Employees_Id], [Managers_Id] ASC);



-- --------------------------------------------------

-- Creating all FOREIGN KEY constraints

-- --------------------------------------------------


-- Creating foreign key on [Employees_Id] in table 'EmployeeManager'

ALTER TABLE [Hima].[EmployeeManager]

ADD CONSTRAINT [FK_EmployeeManager_Employee]

    FOREIGN KEY ([Employees_Id])

    REFERENCES [Hima].[Employees]





-- Creating foreign key on [Managers_Id] in table 'EmployeeManager'

ALTER TABLE [Hima].[EmployeeManager]

ADD CONSTRAINT [FK_EmployeeManager_Manager]

    FOREIGN KEY ([Managers_Id])

    REFERENCES [Hima].[Employees_Manager]




-- Creating non-clustered index for FOREIGN KEY 'FK_EmployeeManager_Manager'

CREATE INDEX [IX_FK_EmployeeManager_Manager]

ON [Hima].[EmployeeManager]




-- Creating foreign key on [DepartmentId] in table 'Employees'

ALTER TABLE [Hima].[Employees]

ADD CONSTRAINT [FK_DepartmentEmployee]

    FOREIGN KEY ([DepartmentId])

    REFERENCES [Hima].[Departments]




-- Creating non-clustered index for FOREIGN KEY 'FK_DepartmentEmployee'

CREATE INDEX [IX_FK_DepartmentEmployee]

ON [Hima].[Employees]




-- Creating foreign key on [Id] in table 'Employees_Manager'

ALTER TABLE [Hima].[Employees_Manager]

ADD CONSTRAINT [FK_Manager_inherits_Employee]

    FOREIGN KEY ([Id])

    REFERENCES [Hima].[Employees]





-- --------------------------------------------------

-- Script has ended

-- --------------------------------------------------

This script can be given to the DBA to run, creating the database. Or, we can right click on the script file and press Execute SQL or Control + Shift +E, to run a script against SQL Server 2008 database from the IDE.

The SQL script is generated from the SSDL contained in the .edmx file. This script contains lots of DDL statements to create the database tables, which correspond to the tables described in the SSDL. Entities are mapped as tables in the database and scalar properties are mapped as columns in the corresponding tables.


In this article we have learnt how to create a database from the model in EF 4.0, an approach also called ‘Model First‘. We’ve looked at the structure of an .edmx file, and its significance, and learnt how to create entities, properties for the entities, and relationships between the entities. As we’ve seen, Model First Development helps to create a model for the entities, then has Visual Studio 2010 generate the DDL to create a database with matching tables, columns and relationships for the entities.

Hima Bindu Vejella

Author profile:

Hima Bindu Vejella has been a Microsoft MVP and member for the Community-Credit Hall of Fame since 2006, and is currently working as a Technical Lead in US based MNC at Hyderabad, where she makes excellent use of her vast experience in software development using Microsoft Technologies. She is also an active community leader, as well as an author for aspalliance, dotnetslackers, PCQuest and, recently, Simple-Talk. She is a speaker, Book-Reviewer, DotnetUserGroupHyderabad India Lead, a Moderator at syntaxhelp, a INETA APAC Volenteer, a regular columnist for MUNDO.NET, and a Technical Member at dotnetspider. She has presented more than 200 sessions at various colleges and events both virtual and 'real', covering topics ranging from MVP awareness to VS2010. Hima is passionate about giving back to the community, and she can be reached at Alternatively, you can follow her on Twitter (@himanet), or read her personal blog at HimaBinduVeljella.blogspot

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Subject: Excellent Read
Posted by: pinaldave (view profile)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 12:11 AM
Message: Excellent very detailed read!

Really enjoyed it and the attention to details is excellent.


Subject: Good Post
Posted by: darkhorse (view profile)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 1:14 AM
Message: The way you explained is good.

Subject: Excellent Article
Posted by: Sivakumar Vellingiri (view profile)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 3:35 AM
Message: Very useful info Bindu and thanks for posting.

Subject: Very useful info
Posted by: Vijaya (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 4:02 AM
Message: I am glad that I have learnt something that is new to be. I used to think that EF is too difficult. But by reading this I came to know that its so easy. Such an easy explanation , presented in a simple and undderstanable way.
Thanks to the author and Simple talk. I am happy that I found this link.

Subject: Very Useful Article
Posted by: d312 (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 4:10 AM
Message: Its very well explained.
Thanks a lot for posting.

Subject: Great Resource !
Posted by: Anonymous (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 4:15 AM
Message: Easy to understand , I can say that EF 4.0 is big hit. Nice features. Thanks for the explanation

Subject: Excellent Explanation
Posted by: Kunal Chowdhury (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 4:48 AM
Message: Well explained Hima. Good Job.

Subject: Wow EF
Posted by: Sravan Kumar (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 4:57 AM
Message: Its a great feature in EF. Now we can create database from model. VS 2020 comes with this option. It is clearly explained step by step.

Subject: ravi
Posted by: Anonymous (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 5:11 AM
Message: Good work Hima,Very useful to all.......

Subject: chinnu
Posted by: Anonymous (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 5:12 AM
Message: nice job

Subject: A Nice Article on EF
Posted by: Surya Pratap (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 6:55 AM
Message: The article is quite nice and covers the basics of setting up and getting to steam on EF.

That said, EF is very constrained when it comes to databases, hopefully MS will allow EF to come out of its infancy and work with other databases.

This is one of the major reasons why EF is not an ORM of choice when your deployment database is not known.

Subject: A Nice Article on EF
Posted by: Surya Pratap (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 7:22 AM
Message: My bad, EF does support multiple databases as long as they have the ADO.Net interface in the drivers.

Subject: Great Article on Entity Framework
Posted by: Saikrishna Alladi (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 7:26 AM
Message: Very great article on Entity Framework,
thanks hima

Subject: A Very Good Article
Posted by: Omprakash Kyadas (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 8:23 AM
Message: The article you have explained covers the basic about creating a EF model.

Subject: Good Resource for EF
Posted by: Shravan Kumar Kasagoni (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 8:26 AM
Message: good article

Subject: Good
Posted by: Bhaskar (view profile)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 9:16 AM
Message: Good one

Subject: Good!
Posted by: Amit P (not signed in)
Posted on: Friday, July 15, 2011 at 1:24 PM
Message: Good post!
But the very first line of the post start with a confusing stuff "Entity Framework (EF) is object relational mapping software" .... no, EF is not s/w, as u said, its framework

Subject: Thanks ,madam
Posted by: (not signed in)
Posted on: Sunday, July 17, 2011 at 3:45 AM
Message: Really nice one,thanks a lot and we expected u to deliver more .net articles lik this..

Subject: Highly technical
Posted by: Priyanka (view profile)
Posted on: Monday, July 18, 2011 at 12:18 AM
Message: Nice article that covers EF, creating database from the model. Espeically useful for the people who are not aware of the features of EF 4.0

Subject: Good Article
Posted by: Manoj Tripathi (not signed in)
Posted on: Wednesday, July 20, 2011 at 4:12 AM
Message: Hi Hima,
Very good article. Keep contributing.

Subject: Excellent Wrie Up
Posted by: Suresh (view profile)
Posted on: Thursday, July 21, 2011 at 12:51 AM
Message: Hima Great Article! Expecting more writings from you in ASP.NET. This article really helpful for me to do hands on and create any type of database from the model. It would be good if you can also write another article on using stored procedures in Entity Framework. Thanks for your time for writing this.

Subject: To choose EF or not
Posted by: Sukanya (not signed in)
Posted on: Thursday, July 21, 2011 at 5:29 AM
Message: Still we have doubt to choose it or not.
Any one can tell me confidently to choose MS EF , which do not lead to any problems?
Still organizations are afraid to use it.

Subject: Dont use EF
Posted by: Anonymous (not signed in)
Posted on: Sunday, July 24, 2011 at 11:26 PM
Message: EF framework as a whole SUCKS.It works very well for academic or very very small real life project or for an article posted above.

Try having a 100+ tables in EF and the performance you see will make you commit suicide and blame yourself that why on hell did I ever use EF...

Let alone I dont want to talk even caching and concurrency problems the EF creates.

A matter of advice:-

Stay away from EF atleast till the time Microsoft comes up with EF 10.0 .....

Subject: Have you tried EF 4.0 or 4.1
Posted by: Hima Vejella (not signed in)
Posted on: Monday, July 25, 2011 at 4:39 AM
Message: @Anonymous Have you ever tried EF 4.0 or 4.1?

Subject: Maintenance?
Posted by: twh (view profile)
Posted on: Monday, July 25, 2011 at 7:36 AM
Message: I was wondering if you are planning a follow-up article that describes how to maintain EF. Do you make changes in the model or the database? Can you propogate changes either way?

Subject: Sure
Posted by: Hima Vejella (not signed in)
Posted on: Monday, July 25, 2011 at 8:43 AM
Message: @twh Sure. I am getting so many email asking questions that is provokes me to write follow up article(1) on this.

Subject: Blaming EF
Posted by: Steve G. (not signed in)
Posted on: Monday, July 25, 2011 at 10:05 AM
Message: @Anonymous - regarding EF performance; you can't blame EF for performance when your programmer creates a mess of a database because he/she's not a DBA!

I'm using EF with a database of several hundred tables with no problems.

Subject: EF SUCKS
Posted by: Anonymous (not signed in)
Posted on: Monday, July 25, 2011 at 11:45 PM
Message: @Steve G.

Yup thats the reason I always believe that leave the DB things for the DB guys and NOT to the application developers who know NOTHING on how databases works.

I would like to know how many Entity models are you using ?

Subject: Basic Article - Followup
Posted by: Anonymous (not signed in)
Posted on: Tuesday, July 26, 2011 at 6:04 AM
Message: Need to discus a few things to get in deeper with you, maybe on twitter ?

Subject: ya it is good article Please read all..
Posted by: srikanna (view profile)
Posted on: Wednesday, August 3, 2011 at 6:01 AM
Message: ya it is very nice article

Subject: Very good
Posted by: sqlfanatic (view profile)
Posted on: Tuesday, August 9, 2011 at 6:59 AM
Message: So useful. I have learned a lot now from this tutorial

Subject: Good post
Posted by: Raghav (view profile)
Posted on: Sunday, October 9, 2011 at 12:50 AM
Message: very much useful,It will be more helpul for us if you give more guidance on unicorn edition for codefirst.

Subject: Great article on creating entity database
Posted by: Rich P123 (view profile)
Posted on: Wednesday, October 26, 2011 at 1:27 PM
Message: I really liked this article. Great job Hima! Now I know how to create an entity database in VS2010 !!!

Subject: Why MS could not make a good instruction like this ?
Posted by: BenLi (view profile)
Posted on: Monday, January 9, 2012 at 9:48 AM
Message: Truly appreciate this free EF tutorial. Hope MS could hire her for making its documents. After wasting hours of effort trying to understand things from MS provided instructions, I have long given up and now only look for 3rd party contribution in explaining MS applications. Thank you Hima for the generous contribution to the developers' world.

Subject: Great article on creating entity database
Posted by: shoeb (view profile)
Posted on: Thursday, November 15, 2012 at 4:59 AM
Message: Great article

Subject: Good one
Posted by: Dorababu (view profile)
Posted on: Friday, December 7, 2012 at 5:11 AM
Message: Hi Bindu I created as per you said but I am getting an error as an item with the same key has already been added can you tell. These are the relation I have given for Employee Department I have given 1 to many, for Employee Manager many to many along with Inheritance


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