02 June 2008

Order of Construction


For me, inheritance is often a headache.  In particular, in what order is everything initialized?  Consider this short C# program.   It creates an instance of Dog, which derives from Animal.  Both Dog and Animal have an instance constructor, a class initializer (aka a static constructor), an instance variable, and a static variable. 

There are eight activities here:

  1. Dog instance constructor
  2. Dog class constructor
  3. Dog instance variable
  4. Dog static variable
  5. Animal instance constructor
  6. Animal class constructor
  7. Animal instance variable
  8. Animal static variable

The question is: ‘In what order are the eight activities run?’  Try working it out.  Anyway, the answer is:

  1. Dog static variable
  2. Dog class constructor
  3. Dog instance variable
  4. Animal static variable
  5. Animal class constructor
  6. Animal instance variable
  7. Animal instance constructor
  8. Dog instance constructor

There are two things I find surprising about this:

  1. Why do static constructors run from most derived class to least derived class, i.e. Dog then Animal?
  2. Why do instance variables get initialized before calling the parent’s instance constructor?

The answer to question 1 is that Dog’s class initializer has to be run since we are running Dog’s instance constructor, but execution of any type’s class initializer method will not trigger automatic execution of any class initializer methods defined by its base type.  Indeed, why should it?


The answer to question 2 is complicated.  Constructing instance fields in the most derived class first is the only way to ensure that readonly fields are initialized and then not changed.  Check out Eric Lippert’s blog for a decent explanation: http://blogs.msdn.com/ericlippert/archive/2008/02/15/why-do-initializers-run-in-the-opposite-order-as-constructors-part-one.aspx

Keep up to date with Simple-Talk

For more articles like this delivered fortnightly, sign up to the Simple-Talk newsletter

This post has been viewed 2432 times – thanks for reading.

  • Rate
    [Total: 0    Average: 0/5]
  • Share

Jason Crease

View all articles by Jason Crease

Related articles

Also in Blogs

Ten Years Later

It’s hard to believe, but Simple Talk has now been going for over ten years. Thanks to brilliant pieces from our writers, hard work from the team here, and countless valuable contributions from you, our readers, we’re currently receiving one million page views a month, and sitting on a hefty 2,500 articles from over 370 … Read more

Join Simple Talk

Join over 200,000 Microsoft professionals, and get full, free access to technical articles, our twice-monthly Simple Talk newsletter, and free SQL tools.

Sign up