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Simple-Talk columnist

How to get SQL Railroad Diagrams from MSDN BNF syntax notation.

Published 28 September 2013 9:39 am

On SQL Server Books-On-Line, in the Transact-SQL Reference (database Engine), every SQL Statement has its syntax represented in  ‘Backus–Naur Form’ notation (BNF)  syntax. For a programmer in a hurry, this should be ideal because It is the only quick way to understand and appreciate all the permutations of the syntax. It is a great feature once you get your eye in. It isn’t the only way to get the information;  You can, of course, reverse-engineer an understanding of the syntax from the examples, but your understanding won’t be complete, and you’ll have wasted time doing it. BNF is a good start in representing the syntax:  Oracle and SQLite go one step further, and have proper railroad diagrams for their syntax, which is a far more accessible way of doing it.

There are three problems with the BNF on MSDN. Firstly, it is isn’t a standard version of  BNF, but an ancient fork from EBNF, inherited from Sybase. Secondly, it is excruciatingly difficult to understand, and thirdly it has a number of syntactic and semantic errors. The page describing DML triggers, for example, currently has the absurd BNF error that makes it state that all statements in the body of the trigger must be separated by commas.  There are a few other detail problems too. Here is the offending syntax for a DML trigger, pasted from MSDN.

Trigger on an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement to a table or view (DML Trigger)
CREATE TRIGGER [ schema_name . ]trigger_name  
ON { table | view }  
[ WITH <dml_trigger_option> [ ,...n ] ] 
{ FOR | AFTER | INSTEAD OF }  
{ [ INSERT ] [ , ] [ UPDATE ] [ , ] [ DELETE ] }  
[ NOT FOR REPLICATION ]  
AS { sql_statement [ ; ] [ ,...n ] | EXTERNAL 
NAME <method specifier [ ; ] > } 
  
<dml_trigger_option> ::= 
    [ ENCRYPTION ] 
    [ EXECUTE AS Clause ] 
  
<method_specifier> ::=  

This should, of course, be

/* Trigger on an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement to a table or view (DML Trigger) */
CREATE TRIGGER [ schema_name . ]trigger_name
ON { table | view }
[ WITH <dml_trigger_option> [ ,...n ] ]
{ FOR | AFTER | INSTEAD OF }
{ [ INSERT ] [ , ] [ UPDATE ] [ , ] [ DELETE ] }
[ NOT FOR REPLICATION ]
AS { {sql_statement [ ; ]} [ ...n ] | EXTERNAL NAME 
<method_specifier> [ ; ] }
 
<dml_trigger_option> ::=
    [ ENCRYPTION ]
    [ EXECUTE AS CLAUSE ]
 
<method_specifier> ::=
    assembly_name.class_name.method_name

I’d love to tell Microsoft when I spot errors like this so they can correct them but I can’t.

Obviously, there is a mechanism on MSDN to get errors corrected by using comments, but that doesn’t work for me (*Error occurred while saving your data.”), and when I report that the comment system doesn’t work to MSDN, I get no reply.

I’ve been trying to create railroad diagrams for all the important SQL Server SQL statements, as good as you’d find for Oracle, and have so far published the CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE railroad diagrams based on the BNF. Although I’ve been aware of them, I’ve never realised until recently how many errors there are. Then, Colin Daley created a translator for the SQL Server dialect of  BNF which outputs standard EBNF notation used by the W3C. The example MSDN BNF for the trigger would be rendered as …

/* Trigger on an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement to a table or view (DML Trigger) */
create_trigger ::= 'CREATE TRIGGER' ( schema_name '.' ) ? trigger_name 'ON' ( table | view ) ( 
'WITH' dml_trigger_option ( ',' dml_trigger_option ) * ) ? ( 'FOR' | 'AFTER' | 'INSTEAD OF' ) ( ( 'INSERT' ) ? ( ',' ) ? 
( 'UPDATE' ) ? ( ',' ) ? ( 'DELETE' ) ? ) ( 'NOT FOR REPLICATION' ) ? 'AS' ( ( sql_statement ( ';' ) ? ) + | 'EXTERNAL 
NAME' method_specifier ( ';' ) ? ) 
 
dml_trigger_option ::= ( 'ENCRYPTION' ) ? ( 'EXECUTE AS CLAUSE' ) ? 
 
method_specifier ::= assembly_name '.' class_name '.' method_name

Colin’s intention was to allow anyone to paste SQL Server’s BNF notation into his website-based parser, and from this generate classic railroad diagrams via Gunther Rademacher's Railroad Diagram Generator.  Colin's application does this for you: you're not aware that you are moving to a different site.  Because Colin's 'translator' it is a parser, it will pick up syntax errors. Once you’ve fixed the syntax errors, you will get the syntax in the form of a human-readable railroad diagram and, in this form, the semantic mistakes become flamingly obvious.

Gunter’s Railroad Diagram Generator is brilliant. To be able, after correcting the MSDN dialect of BNF, to generate a standard EBNF, and from thence to create railroad diagrams for SQL Server’s syntax that are as good as Oracle’s, is a great boon, and many thanks to Colin for the idea. Here is the result of the W3C EBNF from Colin’s application then being run through the Railroad diagram generator.

create_trigger:

dml_trigger_option:

method_specifier:

 

Now that’s much better, you’ll agree. This is pretty easy to understand, and at this point any error is immediately obvious.

This should be seriously useful, and it is to me. However  there is that snag. The BNF is generally incorrect, and you can’t expect the average visitor to mess about with it.

The answer is, of course, to correct the BNF on MSDN and maybe even add railroad diagrams for the syntax. Stop giggling! I agree it won’t happen. In the meantime, we need to collaboratively store and publish these corrected syntaxes ourselves as we do them. How? GitHub?  SQL Server Central?  Simple-Talk? What should those of us who use the system  do with our corrected EBNF so that anyone can use them without hassle?

2 Responses to “How to get SQL Railroad Diagrams from MSDN BNF syntax notation.”

  1. Colin Daley says:

    Hello Phil,

    I, too, think that it won’t be fixed, although I was hoping that now that they are releasing beta versions of SQL Server 2014, they may be persuaded to fix it for the new version, even if they don’t want to go back to the past.

    You said that commenting on MSDN didn’t work, but what about posting to the dedicated SQL Server documentation forum?

  2. dhumberson says:

    Hi Phil,

    As a data architect who transitioned his physical target from Oracle to SQL Server 2008 3 years ago, I applaud your efforts at converting Microsoft’s BNF to RR track format. To discover you have already started actual conversion was decidedly lagniappe of a high order!

    I would happily contribute to a Github based repository for those diagrams, as long as they were published under Copyleft or another open use model.

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